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SP12 Reading List

PLEASE NOTE THAT THIS IS READING LIST IS IN TRANSITION. Please see the summary of planned changes to the paper on the Key Information page.

Here is an outline of the new topics for the paper. Below the outline is the OLD reading list, which is still highly relevant since all of the works mentioned can be studied under the new topics.

Outlines of the Topics

Section A

Urban Cultures. The colonial Americas comprise contested and rewritten spaces, from the interminable Atlantic to the indigenous and European palimpsest of Cuzco. A wide array of texts inhabit and interrogate urban cultures. The Nahuatl-language poetry that flourished during the imperial expansion of the Mexica, with their capital in Tenochtitlan, was later gathered and transcribed in the decades after the city fell to Cortés in 1521. In the early 17th century, Bernardo de Balbuena pens Grandeza mexicana, a Baroque celebration of the colonial capital constructed over the indigenous ruins, highlighting the site’s incorporation into a transatlantic imperial discourse. Meanwhile, in the Peruvian viceroyalty, Mateo Rosas de Oquendo turns a voracious satirical eye on the capital city of Lima.

Barbarism and Captivity. Invasion or conquest, discovery or invention, interpretation or interference: critical frictions characterize the textual traditions of colonial encounters. In his final relaciones de viaje, Cristóbal Colón reads the New World as both earthly paradise and perilous wilderness. In retelling the Naufragios, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca produced a popular and harrowing account of shipwreck and capture inflected by similar oscillations, while in some ways destabilizing the categories of conquistador and conquistado, of barbarism and civilization, through the lens of captivity. Narrating the multiple captivities and treacherous murder of his father, Manco Inca Yupanqui, at the hands of the greedy Spanish, Diego de Castro Titu Cusi Yupanqui provides a singular —and by no means impartial—perspective on the internal conflicts and competing interests that shaped the early colonial history of Peru.

Section B

Spanish American modernismo, which flourished from around 1885 to the beginning of the First World War, saw a radical renewal of writing in Spanish, in poetry and prose, unrivalled since the Golden Age of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Opening up to Western literature and modernity, especially French romanticism and symbolism, Spanish American writing became far more cosmopolitan and, paradoxically, more American and original. The towering figure is the Nicaraguan Rubén Darío with his seminal collections Prosas profanas and Cantos de vida y esperanza, prose poems and short stories, but there is a bewildering richness of figures, from the Cuban poet, essayist and patriot José Martí and the witty chronicles and poetry of the Mexican Gutiérrez Nájera to the sardonic poems and fascinating novel, Sobremesa, of the Colombian José Asunción Silva.

The emblematic poetry of the Avant garde and mid twentieth century reacted against modernism but built on its conquests. The teeming –isms of the early twentieth century European avant-garde movements were taken up by the Latin Americans and made their own. The Chilean Vicente Huidobro and the Argentinians Oliverio Girondo and Jorge Luis Borges wrote important manifestos and poetry of exciting and challenging novelty and formal experimentation. The Peruvian César Vallejo wrote some very radical and difficult poetry in Trilce, while the slightly later poems of the grand Pablo Neruda, such as Residencia en la tierra, are essential reading. Both Neruda and Vallejo went on to write politically committed poetry in the context of the Russian and local revolutionary movements and the Spanish Civil War. The great Mexican poet Octavio Paz’s poetry is best approached in his Libertad bajo palabra.

The City and the Countryside offers germane clusters of texts which can be studied as separate groupings or comparatively. The best known text of the gauchesca, the verse narrative spun around the figure of the River Plate gaucho or cowboy is Hernandez’s Martín Fierro (1872, 79). The conflicts of early Argentina and Uruguay echo and dialogue with founding notions from Sarmiento’s Facundo: civilización y barbarie (1845) and echo in the rewritings of Jorge Luis Borges nearly a century later. The 1920s texts by José Eustasio Rivera, Ricardo Güiraldes, Rómulo Gallegos and others often referred to as the novela de la tierra and set in the jungles and plains of South America address the effects of modernization and nation construction on traditional rural life. Mexican narrative of the 1940s and 50s by Juan Rulfo, José Revueltas, Agustín Yáñez and others combine modernist literary technique with a depiction of traditional rural communities threatened or destroyed by the violence of the Revolution and Cristero Wars and the modernizing campaigns of the State.

Narrative and experiments in form covers the extraordinary flowering of narrative innovation, often highly self-conscious, developing from the late 1940s and gaining international recognition for Latin American fiction in the 1960s and beyond. To mention some of the main writers considered: Juan Carlos Onetti was a pioneer with his La vida breve. The Argentinian Julio Cortázar was inspired by French surrealism, Keats and Poe to write brilliant short stories and the iconic Rayuela (1963), while his friend, the Mexican Carlos Fuentes’s impressive novels develop rather from the conjunction of Anglo-American modernism and the classic French Nineteenth-century novel. The Nobel-Prize-winner Mario Vargas Llosa wrote (and writes) novels of extraordinary narrative fragmentation and complexity on the social and political reality of Peru. Alejo Carpentier, Fuentes and others wrote historical novels of great structural and conceptual complexity.

The Short Story has a long and distinguished tradition in Latin America, with local roots in Palma’s Tradiciones from the 1870s and the stories of Darío and chronicles of Gutiérrez Nájera around the turn of the century. The Uruguayan Horacio Quiroga combined the fantastic of Poe and vivid descriptions of the harsh and dangerous nature of the continent to produce his foundational collections between 1917 and 1926. The Argentinian Jorge Luis Borges combined the fantastic and detective traditions with acute and disconcerting games with intellectual enigmas and questions of authorhood and language to produce some of the most influential works of Western literature such as Ficciones (1944). Julio Cortázar drew on his inspiration from 1952 with Bestiario to write a no less fascinating but more existentially based series of collections. From Lugones and Felisberto Hernández to Arreola and Monterroso, the tradition has great depth and vitality.

Articulations of Identity draws together a range of themes linked by the meditation on identities often defined against or by a dominant other group. Writing on specifically feminine identity, sexuality and language, in poetry and prose, has a rich history in Latin America. Through the twentieth century a powerful line of poetry and thought can be drawn between the very different figures of Gabriel Mistral, Alfonsina Storni, Rosario Castellanos and Alejandra Pizarnik. The poesía negrista of Nicolás Guillén, Palés Matos, Ballagas and others emerged in the 1920s and 30s and explored Afro-Caribbean rhythms, physicality and culture within an anti-colonialist and often humorous discourse. Indigenista texts, from the late nineteenth century onwards, have articulate questions of voice and agency, mestizaje and structural injustice and violence mainly in Andean and Mexican societies. Texts would include those of Alcides Arguedas, José María Arguedas, Ciro Alegría, Rosario Castellanos, Asturias and others, but texts studied in Sp5 should not form an important part of any examination answer.

Visualizing AmericaVisualizing the Americas: Experiments in tradition,modernity,independence.

This wide-ranging comparative topic explores representational strategies and innovation in the arts, photography and film in relation to portrayals of identity, gender, ethnicity, landscape, history, modernity, collectivity, revolutionary struggles, coloniality and neo-coloniality, urbanism, popular culture, mythology and aesthetic experimentation. Visual identities may be studied in a variety of cultural contexts and with reference to issues of genre, aesthetics, iconography, body and art historical theory, geography, liberation and equality, identitarian debates and cultural nationalisms, agency and authority, development and practices of dissent, space and temporality. The figurative, the non-figurative, the documentary and the docu-fictive form part of the evaluation of strategies in relation to consumption, spectatorship, dissemination and perception in art, photography and film. For example, it covers 19th century costumbrismo and other nation-building and nation-questing or emancipatory visualizations, and the transgressive symbolism of Modernismo and the fin-de- siècle. It ranges over aspects of muralism and socially-engaged art in Mexico (Rivera,Orozco,Siqueiros) , Central America and Cuba from the 1920s-1950s and beyond (allowing also for its trans-border impact in USA). Discusses Surrealism, the Fantastic and other non-realistic or constructed visualities in Cuba, Mexico, Brazil and Argentina from the 30s onwards. It considers the relation of modernism to the Pre-Hispanic and Colonial hybridity with possible connections for example to Torres-García and constructivism; Afro-Cubanía and Wifredo Lam; Roberto Mata and inscapes; Diego Rivera and indigenismo; Xul Solar and Cosmic mythologies. It aims to reread the contribution by and re-imagining of peripheral subjects to the creative avant-gardes with particular emphasis on women artists (for example from Tarsila do Amaral, Frida Kahlo, Tina Modotti, Léonor Fini to Leonora Carrington and Lygia Clark), indigeneity , Afro-mestizo constituencies and socially marginalized cultural producers. It considers the charting of urbanism, technology and migration through film, photography and art. The paper allows students to interrelate art practices in a cross-cultural, interdisciplinary and historically comparative ways as well as to explore the exciting intermedial experimentation in photomontage, sculpture, painting, graphic illustration, cinematography and photography (including photojournalism) leading up to post-War Concretismo, abstract expressionism, informalism, Kinetic and abstract-geometric movements in the Brazil, Venezuela, Argentina, Colombia and Mexico.


Old Reading List (still relevant)

This is the reading list for Part II Paper SP12 (Latin American Culture), which focuses on Latin American literature and other cultural forms up to the beginning of the 1970s. You may also be interested in the related paper SP13 (Latin American Culture) which focuses on contemporary culture form the 1970s onwards.

The old form of the paper was divided into two sections:

Candidates will be required to answer three questions, at least one from each section, and at least one of which must relate in whole or in a substantial proportion to poetry. Lectures will not necessarily be offered on all the authors and themes listed below. Candidates should not repeat any significant amount of material from one question to another. They should also not answer exclusively for any one question on texts which they may have studied for the Part Ib Topics in Latin American Culture paper (SP5).

Some introductory and general works

  • Roberto González Echevarría and Enrique Pupo-Walker, eds., The Cambridge History of Latin American Literature (CUP, 1996), 3 volumes. You will find vol. 2 particularly useful for movements and authors. Volume 3 has full bibliographies.
  • John King (ed.) Modern Latin American Fiction: A Survey (Faber & Faber)
  • Luis Harss Los nuestros (1973)
  • Ángel Rama La ciudad letrada (1984)
  • Gerald Martin Journey through the Labyrinth (1989)
  • Rita Guiberg Seven Voices (1973)
  • Djelal Kadir Questing Fictions (1986)
  • Bernard McGuirk Latin American Literature: Symptoms, Risks and Strategies (1997)
  • Paul J Smith The Body Hispanic (1989); Representing the Other (1992)
  • William Rowe and Vivian Schelling Memory and Modernity: Popular Culture in Latin America (1991)
  • Philip Swanson (ed) Landmarks in Modern Latin American Fiction (1990)
  • C Fernández Moreno (ed) América Latina en su literatura (1982)
  • Merlin Foster Tradition and Renewal: Essays on 20thC Latin American Literature and Culture (1975)
  • Carlos Fuentes La nueva novela hispanoamericana (1969), Valiente mundo nuevo (1990), Geografía de la novela (1993)
  • Eduardo Galeano Las venas abiertas de América Latina (1971)
  • David Gallagher Modern Latin American Literature (1973)
  • Joseph Sommers After the Storm: Landmarks of the Modern Mexican Novel (1968)
  • Doris Sommer Foundational Fictions: The National Romances of Latin America (1991)
  • Donald Shaw Latin American Narrative / Nueva narrativa latinoamericana
  • Saúl Yurkievich Fundadores de la nueva poesía hispanoamericana (1972)
  • Guillermo Sucre La máscara, la transparencia (on poetry) (1975) Gordon Brotherston Latin American Poetry, Origins and Presence (1975)
  • Julio Ortega La contemplación y la fiesta (1969), Poetics of change(1984)
  • Mario Benedetti Letras del continente mestizo (1967)

Section A: Topics in Latin American Culture

The following lists all twelve of the topics for which there will be questions in Section A of Paper SP12 as from Tripos 2009, together with suggestions of possible authors/texts which could fruitfully be compared within each topic.

The suggestions for study are not meant to be either exhaustive or prescriptive: students may answer on any suitable texts, but are advised to discuss the choice of texts on which they may be planning to answer with their supervisor during the course of their year's work. In particular, students who took SP5 (Topics in Latin American Culture) in their second year, should not rely on texts they studied for that paper in their answers to the Topics below.

Further suggestions for reading in these topics may be found under the entries for the individual authors concerned.


  • Rubén Darío (Nicaragua), Azul, Prosas profanas, Cantos de vida y esperanza
  • other modernista poets, e.g. José Martí, José Asunción Silva, Leopoldo Lugones, Julio Herrera y Reissig, José Santos Chocano - in anthologies such as Gordon Brotherston, Spanish American Modernista Poets


  • Cathy Jrade, Modernist Poetry, in The Cambridge History of Latin American History, vol. 2
  • MP González, with IA Schulman, José Martí, Rubén Darío y el modernismo (Madrid, 1969)
  • Max Enríquez Ureña, Breve historia del modernismo (México, 1962)
  • IA Schulman, Génesis del modernismo (México, 1968)

Poesía negrista

  • Nicolás Guillén (Cuba)
  • Luis Palés Matos (Puerto Rico)
  • Emilio Ballagas (Cuba)
  • Nancy Morejón (Cuba)
  • Juan Zapata Olivella (Colombia)


  • Julio Finn, Voices of Negritude (London, 1988)
  • Keith Ellis, Cuba's Nicolás Guillén (1983)
  • Wilfred Cartey, Black Images (New York, 1970)
  • Miriam DeCosta, Blacks in Hispanic Literature (New York, 1977)
  • Richard Jackson, Black Writers in Latin America (1976)

Poesía de vanguardia

  • Vicente Huidobro (Chile) and creacionismo, Altazor, Temblor del cielo, manifestos
  • César Vallejo (Perú), Trilce
  • Pablo Neruda (Chile), Residencia en la tierra (I & II)
  • Guillaume Apollinaire (France) or Gerardo Diego (Spain) for comparison with creacionismo
  • Oliverio Girondo (Argentina), Veinte poemas para ser leídos en el tranvía and Calcomanías

See especially on Huidobro:

  • Cedemil Goic, La poesía de VH (Santiago de Chile: AUCH, 1955)
  • Juan Larrea, Del surrealismo a Machupicchu (México: Mortiz, 1967)
  • René de Costa (ed), VH y el creacionismo in series El Escritor y la Crítica (Madrid: Taurus, 1975) and Vicente Huidobro y la vanguardia a special number of Revista Iberoamericana, XLV, 106-7, enero-junio 1979
  • Jaime Concha, VH (1980)

More broadly:

  • Raúl Bueno, Poesía hispanoamericana de vanguardia (Lima, 1985)
  • Octavio Paz, Los hijos del limo: del romanticismo a la vanguardia (Barcelona, 1974)
  • Gloria Videla, Direcciones del vanguardismo hispanoamericano (2 vols, 1990)

Narrativa de la tierra

  • José Eustasio Rivera (Colombia), La vorágine, 1924
  • Ricardo Güiraldes (Argentina), Don Segundo Sombra, 1926
  • Rómulo Gallegos (Venezuela), Doña Bárbara, 1929, Canaima, 1935
  • Teresa de la Parra (Venezuela), Memorias de mamá Blanca, 1929


  • Juan Liscano, Rómulo Gallegos y su tiempo (Caracas, 1980)
  • Lowell Dunham, RG, vida y obra (México, 1967)
  • Giovanni Previtali, Ricardo Güiraldes y 'Don Segundo Sombra' (New York, 1963)
  • Alistair Henessy, The Frontier in Latin American History (London, 1978)
  • Nancy Leys Stepan, Picturing Tropical Nature
  • W.J.T. Mitchell, Landscape and Power
  • Carlos Alonso,The Spanish American Regional Novel (1990)
  • Doris Sommer, Foundational Fictions (1991)

Political Poetry

  • Pablo Neruda (Chile), Tercera residencia, El canto general and manifestos (especially in the review Caballo verde para la poesía)
  • César Vallejo (Perú), Poemas humanos, España aparta de mí este cáliz, essays in El arte y la revolución
  • Ernesto Cardenal (Nicaragua), Nueva antología poética


  • Entries for Neruda and Vallejo (particularly Jean Franco's book)
  • Frederic Murray, The Æsthetics of Contemporary Latin American Social Protest Poetry (1990)

Representing the City

  • Ernesto Sábato (Argentina), Sobre héroes y tumbas (1961)
  • José Donoso (Chile), Coronación (1957)
  • Julio Cortázar (Argentina), Rayuela (1963)
  • Juan Carlos Onetti (Uruguay), El pozo (1939), Tierra de nadie (1941)
  • Mario Vargas Llosa (Perú), Conversación en la catedral (1969)
  • Carlos Fuentes (México), La región más transparente (1959)
  • Julio Bracho, Distinto amanecer (México, 1943, film)
  • Luis Bunuel, El bruto (México, 1952, film)

Latin American Women's Poetry 

  • Rosario Castellanos (Mexico)
  • Alfonsina Storni (Argentina)
  • Alejandra Pizarnik (Argentina)
  • Gabriela Mistral (Chile)


  • Introduction by Julian Palley to Castellanos, Meditación en el umbral
  • Octavio Paz, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, o, Las trampas de la fe (1983)
  • Margarita Rojas, Las poetas del buen amor: la escritura transgresora de sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, Delmira Agustini, Juana de Ibarbourou, Alfonsina Storni (Caracas: Monte Avila, 1991)
  • Sonia Jones, Alfonsina Storni (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1979)

Experimental Fiction

  • Julio Cortázar (Argentina), Rayuela (1963), 62: Modelo para armar (1968)
  • Carlos Fuentes (México), Cambio de piel (1967), Terra Nostra (1975)
  • Guillermo Cabrera Infante (Cuba), Tres tristes tigres (1967)
  • Juan Carlos Onetti (Uruguay), La vida breve (1950)


  • Julio Ortega, The Poetics of Change: The New Spanish-American Narrative (1984)
  • Steven Boldy, The Novels of Julio Cortázar (1980)
  • Kristine Ibsen, Author, Text and Reader in the Novels of Carlos Fuentes (1993)
  • Steven Boldy, The Narratives of Carlos Fuentes (2002)

The Short Story

  • Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina), El Aleph, El informe de Brodie (NOT Ficciones from Sp 5)
  • Juan José Arreola (México)
  • Juan Rulfo (México)
  • Julio Cortázar (Argentina), DO NOT concentrate on stories in Pasajes (from paper Sp 5) - in Alianza see Ritos and Juegos, in Alfaguara, Cuentos completos, or indivudual collections such as Todos los fuegos el fuego and Final de juego
  • Augusto Monterroso (Guatemala), Obras completas y otros cuentos (Oveja Negra, 1969/71)
  • Horacio Quiroga, Cuentos

Escritura femenina

  • Rosario Castellanos (México), Oficio de tinieblas (1962), El eterno femenino (1973)
  • Armonía Somers (Uruguay), La mujer desnuda (1950), El derrumbamiento (1953), La calle del viento norte (1963), De miedo en miedo (1965), Un retrato para Dickens (1969), Todos los cuentos NB If you write on the pre-1970s work of Armonía Somers for SP12, you may NOT write on her post-1970s work for SP13
  • Marta Traba (Argentina), Las ceremonias del verano (1966)
  • María Luisa Bombal (Chile), La última niebla and La amortajada


  • Francine Masiello, Between Civilization and Barbarism: Women, Nation and Literary Criticism (1992)
  • Jean Franco, Plotting Women: Gender and Representation in Mexico (Verso: London, 1989)
  • Susan Barnett, ed., Knives and Angels: Women Writers in Latin America (London, 1990)
  • Debra Castillo, Talking Back: Toward a Latin American iterary Criticism (Ithaca, 1992)

Visual identities

  • Frida Kahlo (México)
  • Tina Modotti (México)
  • Diego Rivera (México)
  • other muralistas

Background reading on art in Latin America:

  • Oriana Baddeley and Valerie Fraser, Drawing the Line: Art and Cultural Identity in Contemporary Latin America
  • Dawn Ades, Art in Latin America: The Modern Era, 1820-1980
  • Damian Bayon (ed.), America Latina en sus artes
  • Jacqueline Barnitz, Twentieth-Century Latin American Art
  • Patrick Frank (ed.), Readings in Latin American Modern Art
  • Waldo Rasmussen (ed.), Latin American Art of the Twentieth Century

See also:

  • Leonard Folgarait, Mural Painting and Social Revolution in Mexico, 1920-1940
  • Desmond Rochfort, Mexican Muralists: Orozco, Rivera, Siqueiros
  • Teresa del Conde, Frida Kahlo: la pintora y el mito
  • O. Baddeley et al, Frida Kahlo (London: Tate Publishing, 2005)
  • Claudia Schaefer, Textured Lives: Women, Art and Representation in Modern Mexico
  • Andrea Noble, Tina Modotti

Inscapes of the Fantastic in Twentieth Century Art and Photography

  • Xul Solar (Argentina)
  • Roberto Matta (Chile)
  • Manuel Álvarez Bravo (Mexico)
  • Leonora Carrington (UK/Mexico)

N.B. If you write on the pre-1968 work of Roberto Matta for SP12, you may not write on the (post-1968) work of Roberto Matta for Part II Paper SP13 (Contemporary Latin American Culture). See also:

  • Mario H. Gradowczyk, Alejandro Xul Solar
  • Gradowczyk et al, Xul Solar: The Architecture
  • Various authors, El surrealismo entre viejo y nuevo mundo
  • Martica Sawin et al, Surrealistas en el exilio y los inicios de la escuela de Nueva York
  • Whitney Chadwick, Women Artists and the Surrealist Movement
  • Mary Ann Caws, Rudolf Kuenzli, Gwen Raaberg (eds), Surrealism and Women
  • Matta: the Logic of Hallucination
  • Elizabeth A.Turbin et al, Matta in America: paintings and drawings of the 1940s
  • William Rubin (ed.), "Primitivism" in 20th Century Art: Affinity of the Tribal and the Modern
  • Susan Kismaric, Manuel Alvarez Bravo
  • Roberto Tejada et al, In Focus: Manuel Alvarez Bravo
  • Olivier Debroise, Fuga mexicana: un recorrido por la fotografia en México 


Section B: Writers and Artists

  • Juan Rulfo
  • Jorge Luis Borges
  • Alejo Carpentier
  • Gabriel García Márquez
  • Julio Cortázar
  • Carlos Fuentes
  • Mario Vargas Llosa
  • Rosario Castellanos
  • Ernesto Sábato
  • Octavio Paz
  • César Vallejo
  • Pablo Neruda
  • Rubén Darío
  • Vicente Huidobro
  • Frida Kahlo



Rubén Darío (Nicaragua, 1867 - 1916)

  • Poesías completas, with special reference to Azul (1888), Prosas profanas (1896), Cantos de vida y esperanza (1905), El canto errante (1907)
  • Ernesto Mejía Sánchez Estudios sobre RD (México, 1968)
  • Pedro Salinas La poesía de RD (B.A., 1958)
  • Octavio Paz in Cuadrivio (México, 1965)
  • Juan Loveluck (ed) Diez estudios sobre RD (Santiago de Chile, 1967)
  • K Ellis Critical Approaches to RD (Toronto, 1974)
  • Ángel Rama RD y el modernismo (1985)

Pablo Neruda (Chile, 1904 - 73)

  • Obras completas, with special reference to Crepusculario (1919), Veinte poemas de amor y una canción desesperada (1924), Residencia en la tierra (1935), Tercera residencia (1945), Canto general (1955), Odas elementales (1954)
  • Yurkievich, Sucre, etc. - see general bibliography
  • Amado Alonso Poesía y estilo de PN (B.A., 1951)
  • E Rodríguez Monegal El viajero inmóvil (B.A., 1966)
  • Alfredo Lozada El monismo agónico de PN (México, 1971)
  • F Riess The Word and the Stone: Language and Imagery in Neruda's
  • Canto general (London, 1972)
  • Ángel Flores (ed) Aproximaciones a PN (Barcelona, 1974),
  • Nuevas aproximaciones a PN (1987)
  • René de Costa The Poetry of PN (1979)
  • Alain Sicard El pensamiento poético de PN (1987)
  • M Agosin PN (1986)

Octavio Paz (Mexico, 1914 - 1998)

  • Collections and anthologies such as Libertad bajo palabra, ORPoemas 1935-75 (Seix Barral), El arco y la lira (FCE, second ed. 1967)
  • Brotherston, Jean Franco, Sucre, Yurkievich - see general bibliography
  • Jason Wilson OP, A Study of his Poetics (CUP, 1979)
  • R Phillips The Poetic Modes of OP (OUP, 1972)
  • I Ivask (ed) The Perpetual Present: Poetry and Prose of Octavio Paz (University of Oklahoma Pr. 1973)
  • R Xirau OP: el sentido de la palabra (México: Mortiz, 1970)
  • Carlos H Magis La poesía heremética de OP (Colegio de México, 1978)

César Vallejo (Peru, 1892 - 1938)

  • Los heraldos negros (1919)
  • Trilce (1922)
  • Poemas humanos
  • España, aparta de mí este cáliz (1939)


  • Sucre, Yurkievich, etc. - see general bibliography
  • Jean Franco CV. The Dialectics of Poetry and Silence (CUP, 1976)
  • James Higgins Visión del hombre y de la vida en las últimas obras poéticas de CV (México, Siglo XXI, 1970)
  • Angel Flores (ed) Aproximaciones a CV (New York: Las Americas, 1971)
  • Alberto Escobar Cómo leer a Vallejo (Lima, 1973)
  • Julio Ortega (ed) César Vallejo, in the series El escritor y la crítica (Madrid: Taurus, 1974)
  • Stephen Hart Religión, política y ciencia en la obra de CV (London: Tamesis, 1987)

Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina, 1899 - 1986)

Since Ficciones (1942-1956) is studied for Part Ib Paper SP5 the main Borges texts studied here will be El Aleph (1949-1952), El informe de Brodie (1970), and El libro de arena (1975). This does not preclude some reference to Ficciones in the examination.

Borges' collections of essays (e.g. Discusión, 1932, Otras inquisiciones, 1952), are useful reading to approach his fiction.

  • Jaime Alazraki La prosa narrativa de JLB (Madrid: Gredos, 1968)
  • Ana María Barrenechea La expresión de la irrealidad en la obra de JLB (1957)
  • Ana María Barrenechea Borges y la crítica (1981)
  • Georges Charbonnier Entretiens avec JLB (Paris: Gallimard, 1967)
  • Ronald Christ The Narrow Act: Borges' Art of Allusion (NY University Press, 1969)
  • Alicia Jurado Genio y figura de JLB (B.A., 1964)
  • Carter Wheelock The Mythmaker (Austin, University of Texas Press, 1969)
  • John Sturrock Paper Tigers (OUP, 1977)
  • Harold Bloom (ed) Jorge Luis Borges
  • DL Shaw Borges' Narrative Strategy (1989)
  • E Fishburn & P Hughes A Dictionary of Borges (1990);
  • E Rodríguez Monegal JLB: a Literary Biography (1978);
  • Sylvia Molloy Las letras de Borges (1979)/Signs of Borges (1994)

Alejo Carpentier (Cuba, 1904 - 80)

  • El reino de este mundo (1949)
  • Los pasos perdidos (1953)
  • El acoso (1956)
  • El siglo de las luces (1962)
  • Tientos y diferencias (essays: 1964)
  • El recurso del método (1974)
  • Concierto barroco (1974)


  • Roberto Gonzalez Echevarría A.C. The Pilgrim at home (Ithaca-London: Cornell UP: 1977)
  • Eduardo González AC: el tiempo del hombre (Caracas: Monte Ávila, 1978)
  • Klaus Müller Bergh (ed) Asedios a C. Once ensayos criticos (Santiago de Chile, 1972)
  • D Shaw Alejo Carpentier (TwayneWorld Author Series, 1985)

Rosario Castellanos (Mexico, 1925 - 74)

  • Balún Canán (1957)
  • Oficio de tinieblas (1962)
  • Los convidados de agosto (stories, 1964)
  • El eterno femenino (theatre, 1975)


  • Beth Miller Una conciencia feminista en México (1983)
  • Nahum Megged RC: un largo camino a la ironía (Colegio de México, 1983)
  • Perla Schwartz Mujer que supo latín (1984)
  • Maureen Ahern, ed., Homenaje a Rosario Castellanos (1980)
  • María Rosa Fiscal La imagen de la mujer en RC (UNAM, 1980)
  • Joanna O'Connell Prospero's Daughter: The Prose of Rosario Castellanos (Austin: U of Texas Press, 1995)
  • Paul Julian Smith Representing the Other

Julio Cortázar (Argentina, 1914 - 84)

Since the collection of short stories entitled Pasajes is studied for Part Ib Paper SP5, candidates for SP12 should avoid relying on the short stories in that collection in their work on this author, although passing reference to them is acceptable in the context of work focused on at least two other collections or novels.

  • Stories:
    • Cuentos completos (Afaguara, 1994) or Relatos (Alianza)
  • Novels:
    • Los premios (1960)
    • Rayuela (1963)
    • 62. Modelo para armar (1968)
    • Libro de Manuel (1973)
  • Misc.:
    • La vuelta al día en ochenta mundos (1967)
    • Ultimo round (1969)
    • Prosa del observatorio (1972)


  • L Aronne Amestory C. La novela mandala (B.A., 1972)
  • Benedetti, Fuentes, Harss and Ortega - see general bilbiography
  • Steven Boldy The Novels of Julio Cortázar (CUP, 1981)
  • García Canclini Cortázar: una antropología poetica (B.A., 1968)
  • Giacoman (ed) Homenaje a JC
  • A MacAdam El individuo y el otro; crítica a los cuentos de JC (B.A., 1971)
  • Ana Hernández del Castillo Keats, Poe, and the Shaping of Cortázar's Mythopoesis (Amsterdam, 1981)
  • J Roy JC ante su sociedad (Barcelona, 1974)
  • G de Sola JC y el hombre nuevo (B.A., 1968)
  • Saúl Sosnowski JC: una búsqueda mítica (B.A., 1973)
  • Fernando Burgos (ed) Los ochenta mundos de C
  • S Yurkievich JC: mundos y modos

Carlos Fuentes (Mexico, 1928 - 2012)

  • Novels:
    • La región más transparente (1958)
    • Aura (1962)
    • La muerte de Artemio Cruz (1962)
    • Cambio de piel (1967)
    • Zona sagrada (1967)
    • Terra Nostra (1975)
  • Essays:
    • La nueva novela hispanoamericana (1969)
    • Tiempo mexicano (1969)
    • Casa con dos puertas (see esp. the first section
    • 'Tres maneras de narrar': 1970)
    • Cervantes o la crítica de la lectura (76)


  • L. Befumo Boschi and E. Calabrese, Nostalgia del futuro en la obra de CF (B.A., 1974)
  • Gloria Durán The Archetypes of CF (Hamden, Conn, 1980)
  • G García Gutiérrez Los disfraces: la obra mestiza de CF (México, 1981), ìIntroductionî to her edition of La región más ransparente (Cátedra)
  • Giacoman (ed) Homenaje a CF (1971)
  • Manuel Durán in Tríptico mexicano (México, 1973)
  • WB Faris Carlos Fuentes (NY: Ungar, 1983)
  • Steven Boldy The Narratives of Carlos Fuentes (2002)
  • R Brody and C Rossman (eds) CF: A Critical View (1982)
  • AM Hernández (ed) La obra de CF: una visión múltiple (198)
  • Kristine Ibsen Author Text and Reader in the Novels of CE (1993)
  • Maarten van Delden CF, Mexico and Modernity (Vanderbilt, 1998)

Gabriel García Márquez (Colombia, 1927 - )

Since the novel Cien años de soledad is studied for Part Ia Paper SP2 (Introduction to Hispanic Texts), candidates should not rely on this novel for a major part of their examination answer. It is, however, acceptable to make use of this text in the context of work that is focused on substantial discussion of at least two other texts by García Márquez.

  • El coronel no tiene quien le escriba (1961)
  • Los funerales de la Mamá Grande (1962)
  • Cien años de soledad (1968)
  • La increíble y triste historia de la cándida Eréndira (1972)
  • El otoño del patriarca (1975)


  • Giacoman (ed) Homenaje a GM
  • Josefina Ludmer Cien años de soledad: una interpretación (B.A., 72)
  • Graciela Maturo Claves símbolicas de GM (B.A., 73)
  • M Vargas Llosa GM: historia de un deicidio (Barcelona, 71)
  • B McGuirk and Cardwell GGM: New Readings (CUP, 87)
  • H Bloom (ed) GGM (89)
  • Julio Ortega GGM and the Powers of Fiction (89)
  • RL Williams GGM (84)
  • Michael Wood GGM One Hundred Years of Solitude (90)
  • Michael Bell GGM: Solitude and Solidarity (93)
  • Robin Fidian (ed) GM (95)

Juan Rulfo (Mexico, 1918 - 86)

Since the collection El llano en llamas is studied for Part Ib Paper SP5 (Topics in Latin American Culture), candidates must include substantial discussion of the novel Pedro Páramo alongside their discussion of El llano en llamas in their examination answers on this author.

  • El llano en llamas (1953)
  • Pedro Páramo (1955)


  • Rodríguez Monegal, Harss, J. Ortega and C. Fuentes in works mentioned in general bibliography.
  • Violeta Peralta y Liliana Befumo Boschi, Rulfo: la soledad creadora (B.A.: García Cambeiro, 1975)
  • GR Freeman Paradise and fall in J.R.'s 'Pedro Páramo' (México, 70)
  • J Sommers (ed) La narrativa de Juan Rulfo (México, 74)
  • José González Boixo Claves narrativas de JR (Léon, 1980)
  • Marta Portal Rulfo: dinámica de la violencia (1984)

Mario Vargas Llosa (Peru, 1936 - )

  • La ciudad y los perros (1963)
  • La casa verde (1966)
  • Conversación en la catedral (1969)
  • Pantaleón y las visitadoras (1971)
  • La guerra del fin del mundo (1981)


  • Historia de un deicidio (1971)
  • La orgía perpetua (1975)


  • H. Giacoman (ed) Homenaje a VLI
  • María Rosa Alonso Agresión a la realidad (Tenerife,1972),
  • Rosa Boldori VLI: un narrador y sus demonios (B.A., 1974)
  • Fuentes and Harss - see general bibliography
  • JM Oviedo MVLI: la invención de una realidad (Barcelona, 1977)
  • RL Williams MVLl (1986)
  • Dick Gerdes MVLl (1985)
  • JM Oviedo (ed) MVLl : el escritor y la crítica (1982)

Frida Kahlo (bibliography to follow)