This paper is available for the academic year 2016-17.
German today is spoken by around ninety million people, and our oldest records of the language go back to the sixth and seventh centuries CE. This paper focuses both on contemporary structures and varieties of German, and on historical change from earliest times to the present.
German shares an inheritance with other closely related languages, including English, Dutch and the Scandinavian languages, but has modified this inheritance in distinctive ways. The historical strand of the paper examines data from earlier periods of German to enable students to build up a picture of how its sounds, grammatical forms and lexicon have changed over time. In the contemporary strand of the paper, linguistic data from spoken and written, standard, non-standard and dialect texts is analysed to yield a formal description of modern German, and to examine how the language is changing today.
The paper has both descriptive and theoretical goals: students will learn how to use formal linguistic terminology to describe the phonology, morphology and syntax of German, and how to use theoretical models to interpret varied and changing features. The exam includes some practical exercises in linguistic analysis as well as essay topics of a more theoretical nature.
For the historical section of the paper, the following texts will be covered:
Set Texts for Translation and Commentary Question in Section B
Old High German
- Ludwigslied; Notker, Aus Boethius, 1 (Item prologus teutonice); in: Wilhelm Braune, Althochdeutsches Lesebuch, Tübingen: Niemeyer 1994, pp. 61-2 and 136-8.
Middle High German
- Nibelungenlied, strophes 814-76, in: M. O'C. Walshe, A Middle High German Reader, Oxford: Oxford University Press 1974, pp. 137-49.
Early New High German
Martin Luther. Ein Sendbrieff / von Dolmetschen / vnd Fürbitte der Heiligen (1530). The extract published in W.A. Coupe, A Sixteenth-Century German Reader (Oxford 1972), pp. 26–31.
- Salmons, Joseph. 2012. A History of German. Oxford: OUP.
- Schmidt, Wilhelm. 2013 (11th ed.). Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. Stuttgart and Leipzig: Hirzel.
- von Polenz, Peter. 2009 (10th ed.) Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. Berlin & New York: de Gruyter.
- Wells, C.J. 1985. German. A linguistic history to 1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Young, Christopher and Thomas Gloning. 2004. A History of the German Language through Texts. London & New York: Routledge.
- Boase-Beier, Jen and Ken Lodge. 2002. The German Language: A Linguistic Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell
- Fagan, Sarah M.B. 2009. German: A Linguistic Introduction. Cambridge: CUP.
- Fox, Anthony. 2005 (2nd ed.). The Structure of German. Oxford: Clarendon.
- Glück, Helmut and Wolfgang Werner Sauer. 1990. Gegenwartsdeutsch. Stuttgart: Metzler.
- König, Werner. 2011 (17th ed.). dtv-Atlas zur deutschen Sprache. Munich: dtv.
- Barbour, Stephen and Patrick Stevenson. 1990. Variation in German. Cambridge: CUP.
The historical strand will be taught in the Michaelmas term, the contemporary strand in Lent. The Easter term will be devoted to revision classes.
For the Ge.7 Moodle site, please see here. The password can be collected from the paper coordinator.
The examination will be divided into two sections. Section A is devoted to contemporary German; Section B contains questions on the historical linguistics of German from the earliest times. Each section includes an optional practical exercise: identification of a dialect passage or discussion of a set of words, in Section A; translation of short extracts from set texts, plus commentary on underlined words and phrases, in Section B. Candidates must answer three questions, at least one from each section. A specimen examination paper can be seen here.
Dr Sheila Watts